Unlike a total eviction clause, which aims to completely exclude judicial review, a partial displacement clause sets a limited period of time after which no recourse is available. However, if the question arises as to whether an authority acted in bad faith, the act or decision of the authority is not immune to judicial review, regardless of the passage of time.  While the scope of judicial review under Anisminic has been significantly expanded, there are still a number of exceptions where total eviction clauses prevent courts from exercising their oversight function in the context of judicial review. Section 2 of the recently published Judicial Review and Courts Bill (here) could provide a new model for an effective eviction clause. The Justice Department apparently hopes so, arguing that it „will serve as a framework that can be replicated in other laws. [and] draw a line under decades of uncertainty and confusion about their proper use” (here). However, Article 2 is a limited impeachment that merely removes the jurisdiction of the High Court to review decisions of the Higher Court on applications for leave to appeal certain decisions of the Court of First Instance. It does not immunize executive decision-making prior to the challenge – both the High Court and the Court of First Instance are independent judicial bodies. This context for this particular eviction clause could help maintain it. Whether the same design technique would be as effective in other contexts may be another question. In any event, a recent speech by Lord Chancellor Robert Buckland QC (here) suggests that there is an appetite to breathe new life into far-reaching sharp clauses and that, no matter how effective Section 2 may be, we should expect continued legislative experimentation in this area. Parliament entered modern times with indecent haste and passed another expulsion clause in the Regulation of Investigative Powers Act 2000. Article 67(8) originally provided as follows: First, it should be noted that when the Government established the very broad mandate of IRAL, deletion clauses were not among the issues to be addressed in the review.
The task of the review was to consider the somewhat related but nevertheless different issue from legality, but concluded that no legislation should be adopted to prescribe which matters should be considered non-justiciable. The IRAL report noted that legislation aimed at „reversing” recent developments in the non-Jewish law „would be considered a `ruthless clause` and that „while the use of such a clause to address a particular issue may be justified, it „would likely be subject to a hostile response from the courts and rigorous scrutiny by Parliament.” In addition to this conclusion, the review acknowledged that „[t]he decision to legislate in this area is ultimately a matter of political choice,” but that, if such legislation were to be adopted, „Parliament`s approach should reflect a strong presumption of leaving judicial matters to judges before they decide to enact such legislation.” In deciding not to recommend legislation to restrict legality, the review looked obliquely at the issue of predatory clauses in general. In this case, he raised two key points. First, it clarified that „the doctrine of parliamentary sovereignty means that Parliament has the power to legislate in such a way as to limit or exclude judicial review.” Second, however, the review further warned: „The wisdom of taking such a course and the risk of doing so are different issues. Indeed, the Panel considers that there should be very valid reasons for such an exceptional route. Although the review did not make any positive recommendations regarding the sunset clauses, the government firmly put the issue on the table in its response. Indeed, the Lord Chancellor and the Minister of Justice stress in his foreword to the response that the government`s priority – „before considering whether more comprehensive reforms are needed” – is to deal with sunset clauses and remedies. Thus, a private clause does not prevent the High Court from exercising judicial review where an authority has not exercised its powers in good faith, or where the measures taken or decisions taken are unrelated to the mode of legislation or do not fall within the power conferred on the authority.  Although a legislative provision is inconsistent with section 75(v) if it purports to prevent the court from determining whether a Commonwealth official has engaged in „unlawful or unauthorized conduct” or „acted on the ground that an invalid decision is valid and enforceable”[, a clause will not be unconstitutional if it has the effect of altering procedural or substantive law, which the court must apply to ensure that „the contested decision or conduct is truly valid or lawful”.  The situation in Singapore is unclear […].